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王澄:中国作为一个功能社会落后于西方约150年
(博讯北京时间2013年4月08日 首发 - 支持此文作者/记者)
    
    “2013年3月8日,万年青人大代表申纪兰说:社会主义才有养老金。”---无知无耻
    

    人类学家说,西方社会于18世纪解决了生产问题,19世纪解决了分配问题。相比之下,中国在1980年后几十年改革开放解决了生产问题,目前还没有解决分配问题,原因是封建专制体制在作怪。
    
    *一 医疗保障
    美国大约在内战期间(1861-1865年)有了医疗保障制度的雏形。到了19世纪末医疗保障的范围扩大并趋于成熟。
    The first of what could be called individual “health” insurance plans became available in the United States during the Civil War. The plans were accident insurance providing coverage for injury related to travel by railroad or steamboat. Massachusetts Health Insurance of Boston offered early group policies with a relatively comprehensive list of benefits as early as 1847. Individual accident insurance proved a successful venture, so these kinds of early plans began to evolve into more expansive programs that covered a broader range of illness and injury, including early versions of disability coverage by the end of the nineteenth century.
    
    欧洲医疗保障制度形成于19世纪,由德国开始。医疗保障系统涉及到病人,医院,和医生。渐渐形成冠以“社安体系”的全面保障制度,包括了养老,残疾人,家庭补助,和医疗保险。
    In Europe during the nineteenth century, the labor movement and the political parties of the Left pressed governments to strengthen the mutual aid system. Starting with Germany, entire classes of workers were covered, they and their employers paid taxes, the payroll taxes went into funds, the mutual aid groups (or special new agencies) administered the money, and payments were made to beneficiaries, hospitals, and doctors. These were comprehensive “social security” systems, including old-age pensions, disability benefits, family allowances, and health insurance.
    
    *二 养老pension
    1875年,美国的The American Express Company开启了第一个养老基金(pension)。
    1875 -- The American Express Company established the first private pension plan in the United States.
    
    英国于1670年代提供皇家海军军官养老金。1908年,养老金法通过。
    A brief guide to the history of pensions in the United Kingdom:
    1670s First organised pension scheme for Royal Navy Officers
    1908 Old Age Pensions Act - introduced first general old age pension paying a non-contributory amount of between 10p and 25p a week, from age 70, on a means-tested basis from January 1 1909 - "Pensions Day". This was introduced during the Liberal government of David Lloyd-George. Sir William Beveridge, father of the welfare state, was an adviser.
    
    德国于1889年Bismarck俾斯麦时代建立了残疾人和老人养老基金。
    The system of statutory pension insurance in Germany is over 100 years old. After a series of social laws were enacted under Bismarck, disability and old-age insurance followed in 1889.
    
    *三 穷人福利(指能够工作但是找不到工作的人,和收入低的人。)
    最早来美国的英国人已经采用了英国的穷人福利办法(the British Poor Laws)。
    The history of welfare in the U.S. started long before the government welfare programs we know were created. In the early days of the United States, the colonies imported the British Poor Laws. These laws made a distinction between those who were unable to work due to their age or physical health and those who were able-bodied but unemployed. The former group was assisted with cash or alternative forms of help from the government. The latter group was given public service employment in workhouses.
    
    经过19世纪的努力,美国的穷人福利制度趋于成熟。
    Throughout the 1800's welfare history continued when there were attempts to reform how the government dealt with the poor. Some changes tried to help the poor move to work rather than continuing to need assistance. Social casework, consisting of caseworkers visiting the poor and training them in morals and a work ethic was advocated by reformers in the 1880s and 1890s.
    
    德国的穷人福利制度Welfare Policy建立于Bismarck俾斯麦时代。俾斯麦于1873年创建了社会保障体系。
    The German Welfare Model has been a pioneer in Welfare Policy since the Bismarck Era. In 1873, Bismarck created a social insurance system that was stratified along occupational and class lines.
    
    英国也是于19世纪创建穷人福利制度。
    In the 19th century Britain's welfare was characterised by voluntary provision, with mutual and friendly societies delivering a whole range of benefits. Local authorities and voluntarily run hospitals, together with a national system of panel doctors were financed from health insurance contributions, which were set by the state and collected through mutually owned societies.
    
    *四 平等教育
    18世纪和19世纪以前,欧洲的儿童教育限于家庭和教堂。法国革命(1789年)和美国革命(18世纪)之后,儿童教育被确立为政府(公共)责任。
    In Europe, before the Enlightenment of the eighteenth and nineteenth century, education was the responsibility of parents and the church. With the French and American Revolution education was established also as a public function. It was thought that the state, by assuming a more active role in the sphere of education, could help to make education available and accessible to all. Education had thus far been primarily available to the upper social classes and public education was perceived as a means of realising the egalitarian ideals underlining both revolutions.
    
    *五 穷人的法律援助
    美国的对穷人的法律援助制度完善于自19世纪末到20世纪初。
    Beginning in the late 1800s and throughout the early years of the 20th century, the American legal profession expressed its commitment to the concept of free legal assistance for poor people in the form of legal aid societies and bar association legal aid committees.
    
    
    参加2013年4月2日学习的有中国民主党全委会主席王军涛,美国委员会主席宋书元,还有张玉红,杨维锋,张寿光,蒋利华,陈桂芬,江惠云,黄巧月,张成亮,吴锡锋,陈闯创,吕志杰,曹晗,张美卿,秦万林,张宏云,申倩,牛林林,孙滨,陈如,徐田,王莉丽,牟杰,卢文芳,黄欣霖,柳维新,赵志新,周广遵,刘增云,林月容,林山,王秀美,吴斌武,张超,考云峰,李隆玲,郑伊香,丛桂萍,郭琳,赵发光,李海燕,李超,汤祥威,柏龑,王澄。 [博讯首发,转载请注明出处]- 支持此文作者/记者(博讯 boxun.com)
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