(博讯北京时间2011年9月02日 首发 - 支持此文作者/记者)
今天的人类只有中共一家政府鼓吹中医的阴阳五行，相当于西方人约公元前400年的思想水平，中共把中国人的脸都丢尽了。 (博讯 boxun.com)
泰勒斯Thales (公元前 624年 – 546年) 被称为最早的西方哲学家，他认为万物都以湿的东西为营养，热也是从湿气中产生，所以他认为组成世间万物的基本元素是“水”。
阿那克西米尼Anaximenes (公元前585年 – 528年) 认为“气”是产生万物的原初物质，他说，气凝集起来就形成风，如果这一过程持续下去，就会产生水，再向下发展就会产生土，最浓密的时候就会形成石头。
赫拉克利特Heraclitus (公元前 535 年- 475年)认为世间所有的事物都是在不停地变换着，他的名言：你不可能两次跨入同一条河。No man can cross the same river twice. 他认为导致这种变化的是“火”。他进一步说，“土亡而生火，火亡而生气，气亡而生水，水亡而生土。Fire lives the death of earth, and air the death of fire; water lives the death of air, earth that of water.
恩培多克勒Empedocles (公元前490年 – 430 年)认为世间万物是由土，气，火，水这四种不能再分裂的微粒组成。
希波克拉底Hippcrates（公元前460-公元前377年）用这四种原初物质解释人体，黄胆汁（火）yellow bile，黑胆汁（土）black bile，血液（气）blood，粘液（水）phlegm。
Ionian School (philosophy)
Map of ancient Ionia, on the eastern side of the Aegean Sea.The Ionian school, a type of Greek philosophy centred in Miletus, Ionia in the 6th and 5th centuries BCE, is something of a misnomer. Although Ionia was a centre of Western philosophy, the scholars it produced, including Thales, Anaximander, Anaximenes, Heraclitus, Anaxagoras, Archelaus, and Diogenes of Apollonia, had such diverse viewpoints that it cannot be said to be a specific school of philosophy. Aristotle called them physiologoi meaning 'those who discoursed on nature', but he did not group them together as an "Ionian school". The classification can be traced to the 2nd century historian of philosophy Sotion. They are sometimes referred to as cosmologists, since they were largely physicalists who tried to explain the nature of matter.
While some of these scholars are included in the Milesian school of philosophy, others are more difficult to categorize.
Most cosmologists thought that although matter can change from one form to another, all matter has something in common which does not change. They did not agree what it was that all things had in common, and did not experiment to find out, but used abstract reasoning rather than religion or mythology to explain themselves, thus becoming the first philosophers in the Western tradition.
Later philosophers widened their studies to include other areas of thought. The Eleatic school, for example, also studied epistemology, or how people come to know what exists. But the Ionians were the first group of philosophers that we know of, and so remain historically important.
Thales (Greek: Θαλης) of Miletus (ca. 624 BCE - 546 BCE) is regarded as the earliest western philosopher. Before Thales, the Greeks explained the origin and nature of the world through myths of anthropomorphic gods and heroes. Phenomena like lightning or earthquakes were attributed to actions of the gods. By contrast, Thales attempted to find naturalistic explanations of the world, without reference to the supernatural. He explained earthquakes by imagining that the Earth floats on water, and that earthquakes occur when the Earth is rocked by waves. Thales' most famous belief was his cosmological doctrine, which held that the world originated from water.
Anaximander (Greek: Άναξίμανδρος) (610 BCE – ca. 546 BCE) wrote a cosmological work, little of which remains. From the few extant fragments, we learn that he believed the beginning or first principle (arche, a word first found in Anaximander's writings, and which he probably invented) is an endless, unlimited mass (apeiron), subject to neither old age nor decay, which perpetually yields fresh materials from which everything we can perceive is derived.
Anaximenes (Greek: Άναξιμένης) of Miletus (585 BCE - 528 BCE) held that the air, with its variety of contents, its universal presence, its vague associations in popular fancy with the phenomena of life and growth, is the source of all that exists. Everything is air at different degrees of density, and under the influence of heat, which expands, and of cold, which contracts its volume, it gives rise to the several phases of existence. The process is gradual, and takes place in two directions, as heat or cold predominates. In this way was formed a broad disk of earth, floating on the circumambient air. Similar condensations produced the sun and stars; and the flaming state of these bodies is due to the velocity of their motions.
Heraclitus (Greek: Ἡράκλειτος) of Ephesus (ca. 535 - 475 BCE) disagreed with Thales, Anaximander, and Pythagoras about the nature of the ultimate substance and claimed instead that everything is derived from the Greek classical element fire, rather than from air, water, or earth. This led to the belief that change is real, and stability illusory. For Heraclitus "Everything flows, nothing stands still." He is also famous for saying: "No man can cross the same river twice, because neither the man nor the river are the same."
Empedocles (ca. 490 BCE – ca. 430 BCE) was a citizen of Agrigentum, a Greek colony in Sicily. Empedocles' philosophy is best known for being the origin of the cosmogenic theory of the four classical elements. He maintained that all matter is made up of four elements: water, earth, air and fire. Empedocles postulated forces called Love (philia) and Strife (neikos) to explain the attraction and separation of different forms of matter. He was also one of the first people to state the theory that light travels at a finite (although very large) speed.
Anaxagoras of Clazomenae (ca. 500-428 BCE) regarded material substance as an infinite multitude of imperishable primary elements, referring all generation and disappearance to mixture and separation respectively. All substance is ordered by an ordering force, the cosmic mind (nous).
Archelaus was a Greek philosopher of the 5th century BCE, born probably in Athens. He was a pupil of Anaxagoras, and is said by Ion of Chios (Diogenes Laërtius, ii. 23) to have been the teacher of Socrates. Some argue that this is probably only an attempt to connect Socrates with the Ionian School; others (e.g. Gomperz, Greek Thinkers) uphold the story. There is similar difference of opinion as regards the statement that Archelaus formulated certain ethical doctrines. In general, he followed Anaxagoras, but in his cosmology he went back to the earlier Ionians.
Hippo (ca. 425 BCE) was native of Magna Graecia (Italy). Very little is known about him. He held that water was the principle of all things, with fire springing from water, and then developing itself by generating the universe. Primarily interested in biological matters, he was said to have been an atheist.
Diogenes of Apollonia
Diogenes (ca. 425 BCE) was a native of Apollonia, either the one in Crete or in Thrace. Like Anaximenes, he believed air to be the one source of all being, and all other substances to be derived from it by condensation and rarefaction. His chief advance upon the doctrines of Anaximenes is that he asserted air, the primal force, to be possessed of intelligence—"the air which stirred within him not only prompted, but instructed. The air as the origin of all things is necessarily an eternal, imperishable substance, but as soul it is also necessarily endowed with consciousness."
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