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美国对新疆骚乱心态矛盾
(博讯北京时间2009年7月09日 转载)
    来源:英国《金融时报》
     有那么一刻,对于如何回应最近在新疆发生的暴力事件,美国的不安展露无疑。在本周与俄罗斯总统德米特里•梅德韦杰夫(Dmitry Medvedev)的联合新闻发布会上,当有人请美国总统巴拉克•奥巴马(Barack Obama)就新疆骚乱和中国随后的镇压行动发表评论时,奥巴马显然颇为狼狈。
     (博讯 boxun.com)

    奥巴马回避就此问题发表任何言论,指出自己“整夜都在旅行,整个白天都在开会”,没有得到全面的汇报,而美国将会发表一份官方声明。
    
    对于中国称为内部事务、而人权活动人士称为全球关切的问题,华盛顿是否已经准备好摆明立场,新疆事件是一场具有代表性的考验。
    
    最终,奥巴马承诺的声明出现了,即希拉里•克林顿(Hillary Clinton)对一个类似问题作出的回应,此后美国政府就一直坚持这个论调。这位国务卿表示,美国“深表关切”,“试图甄别……事实”,“呼吁各方保持克制”。
    
    美国没有强烈呼吁展开对话----这是流亡的维吾尔维权人士所要求的,而中国政府会将此视为干涉内政。
    
    许多维吾尔人表示,美国政府和世界其它国家对于维族人在新疆受到的不公正待遇的关注,远远少于对西藏问题的关注。他们称,维吾尔人因为是穆斯林而受到歧视,而美国和其它国家希望将可能扰乱与中国双边关系中优先事项的问题限定在一定数量内。
    
    世界维吾尔代表大会(World Uighur Congress)主席热比娅(Rebiya Kadeer)本周接受英国《金融时报》采访时表示,“国际关注缺乏”在一定程度上鼓励了镇压行动。中国将热比娅称为新疆暴力事件的煽动者,而她在美国被奉为人权活动家。
    
    她表示:“我希望国际社会和美国政府的最高层在此问题上采取强硬立场。”
    
    迄今为止,这一愿望尚未实现。人权组织表示,奥巴马政府没能像他们期望的那样强调人权问题,突出体现于希拉里今年2月发表的言论:西藏、台湾和人权等问题不应“妨碍”经济和气候变化等优先事项。
    
    人权观察(Human Rights Watch)的索菲•理查森(Sophie Richardson)表示:“奥巴马政府有一个真正的机会全面讨论人权问题,但他们确实没有采取坚定的行动。”
    
    美国长期以来为被关押在关塔那摩监狱的维吾尔人寻找定居点的努力,几乎最好体现了其它国家对维吾尔族运动的矛盾心情。美国认为这些被关押的维吾尔人不再构成威胁,但中国却称之为伊斯兰恐怖分子。
    
    奥巴马政府和乔治•布什(George W. Bush)政府都花费了多月为这些维吾尔人寻找收留地。他们在阿尔巴尼亚、百慕大和帕劳(临时)取得了一些成功,但德国和美国本土境内等许多更明显的选择已告失败。
    
    美国众议院前发言人纽特•金里奇(Newt Gingrich)把关塔那摩监狱关押的维吾尔人描述为“受过训练的大规模杀手,听命于对2001年9月11日3000名美国人遇难负责的恐怖分子”。尽管这种说法遭到了猛烈否认和驳斥,但奥巴马政府还是放弃了让他们定居美国的想法。
    
    另据英国《金融时报》德尔菲娜•施特劳斯(Delphine Strauss)从安卡拉发回的报道称,土耳其总理雷杰普•塔伊普•埃尔多安(Recep Tayyip Erdogan)表示,他将把土耳其政府对新疆暴乱的关切提交联合国安理会(UN Security Council)。土耳其是联合国安理会非常任理事国。
    
    他表示:“我们始终把我们与维吾尔兄弟的历史和文化纽带,视为我们与中国良好关系中通向友谊与合作的桥梁。”他呼吁中国政府结束暴力,尊重人权。
     译者/梁艳裳
    
    英文原文:
    
    UIGHURS HELD AT GUANTÁNAMO HIGHLIGHT US AMBIVALENCE
    
    For a moment, the US's unease about how to respond to the recent violence in Xinjiang was there for all to see. Barack Obama, the president, was visibly discomfited this week when, during his joint press conference with Dmitry Medvedev, his Russian counterpart, he was asked to comment on the riots and on China's subsequent crackdown.
    
    Mr Obama avoided making any remark, pointing out that he had been “travelling all night and in meetings all day”, was not fully briefed and that the US would instead release an official statement.
    
    The issue is a classic test of Washington's readiness to take a stand on what China labels as its internal affairs and what human rights activists say is a question of global concern.
    
    Eventually, the promised statement appeared and Washington has clung to its outlines ever since, most notably in Hillary Clinton's response to a similar question, in which the secretary of state said the US was “deeply concerned”, “trying to sort out . . . the facts” and “calling on all sides to exercise restraint”.
    
    What the US has not done is issue the forceful call for dialogue that exiled Uighur activists are demanding and which Beijing would label as interference in its domestic business.
    
    Many Uighurs say that Washington, and the rest of the world, has paid much less attention to abuses in Xinjiang than it has done to the problems of Tibet. They argue that Uighurs are stigmatised because of being Muslims, while the US and other countries are keen to limit the number of issues that could disturb the priorities in their bilateral relationships with China.
    
    Rebiya Kadeer, the chairman of the World Uighur Congress, whom China depicts as the instigator of the Xinjiang violence but who has been feted in the US as a human rights activist, told the Financial Times in an interview this week that “the lack of international concern” had in part encouraged the crackdown.
    
    “My hope is that the international community, the US government will take a strong position on this issue, at the highest level,” she said.
    
    So far, such a hope has not been fulfilled. Activist groups say the Obama administration has emphasised human rights issues less than they expected, highlighting Mrs Clinton's February remark that issues such as Tibet, Taiwan and human rights should not “interfere” with priorities such as the economy and climate change.
     “The Obama administration has a real opportunity to talk about the whole range of human rights issues and they are really not moving assertively to do that,” says Sophie Richardson of Human Rights Watch.
    
    Few issues have more starkly highlighted the rest of the world's ambivalence towards the Uighurs cause than the US's long effort to resettle Guantánamo Bay's Uighur detainees, whom the US has determined do not pose a threat but whom China denounces as Islamist terrorists.
    
    Both the Obama administration and that of George W. Bush have spent long months trying to find homes for the Uighurs. They had some success with Albania, Bermuda and, provisionally, Palau, but many more obvious choices, such as Germany and within the US itself, have fallen through.
    
    Newt Gingrich, former Speaker of the House of Representatives, described the Uighur Guantánamo detainees as “trained mass killers instructed by the same terrorists responsible for killing 3,000 Americans on September 11, 2001”. Despite a flurry of denials and refutations, the Obama administration gave up on on the idea of resettling them in the US.
    
    Recep Tayyip Erdogan, Turkish premier, has said he would bring his government's concerns over the violence in Xinjiang to the United Nations Security Council, where it is a non-permanent member, Delphine Strauss writes from Ankara.
    
    “We have always viewed our historical and cultural links with our Uighur brothers as a bridge to friendship and co-operation in our good relations with China,” he said, calling on the Chinese authorities to end the violence and respect human rights.
     _(网文转载) (博讯 boxun.com)

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